Windmill

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Intro

Welcome to Jair's awesome internship project to build a replicable small-scale wind energy system.

A few different configurations will be explored, including 3D printed turbine blades, gearboxes, stepper motors, laptop battery banks, and a 3D printed brushless motor.

Project 1 is a vertical printed windblade on a modified frame.

Project 2 is a small Urginsky windblade.

Tech Info

We have 3D printed a Savonius & Gorlov VAWT blades out of PLA with the GigaBot printer. My first goal is to make with this blade my first wind turbine that has a 110V AC outlet.The first thing i am working on is choicing the right sort of generator to use for charging a battery. I have 3 small PMDC(Permanent Magnet DC Motor) that produce a small voltage with a maximum speed of a powertool. Motor 1 produces 3V, Motor 2 produces 3.3V and Motor 3 produces 7V.

The battery will be 12V DC battery, because the battery is in Direct Current configured i will be using a Permanent Magnet DC generator. finding the right generator is hard because it must not be damaged and must be enough to charge a 12V DC car battery. I also have to decide if i am making or buying a charge controller. Charge controller ensures Low Voltage Protection, Over Voltage Protection, Battery Cut Off Circuit, Back Current Protection and Over Discharge Protection. If we can put LCD on the charge controller we can also see the data on the wind generator and the battery. We also have an old solar charge controller that can be used. After honking up the charge controller to the battery. We must convert 12V DC to 110V AC outlet so that we can power stuff with the VAWT wind turbine. I am now busy with the VAWT stand so that i can start putting everything together.

small scale windTurbine

i had an idea to make a small scale VAWT with the 3 PMDC motors i have to power a small outlet. Im thinking of a design where you can attach it on any stable pole you want to. The point of this project is to get familiar with the off-grid setup so i can make its at a larger scale and for the use of the 3 small DC motors.

DIY Wind Turbines

Lenz2 Helical Turbine XL

blades

3D printable Vertical Axis blades

Quentin Harley
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:16504
Ugrinsky wind turbine
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:996946
Conceptual Wind Turbine
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:582948
Wind Turbine speed
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:3415666
Antonio Di Maria
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:904398

connector

  • Direct connection: a simple method to connect the wind blades with the generator.
  • brake system: to slow down the blades so that the wind turbine will not get damaged.
  • gear system: gears are used to multiply or divide the torque or the speed.

generator

Stepper Motor generator

A motor rated at 50 volts for example could be used to charge a 12 volt battery at low RPM, whereas a 15 volt stepper motor could only charge a 12 volt battery when up at near its maximum RPM limit.

Find out how to make a simple Stepper Motor Voltage Doubler Circuit here which will can be used to increase the voltage output from the stepper motor (at the same time as reducing the current).

Note that the electricity generated by a stepper motor is usually in multiple phase AC. To rectify this into direct current (DC) for battery charging or lighting LEDs etc, you need to use a suitable bridge rectifier (or multi phase bridge rectifier. Note that some voltage is lost in the rectification process (wasted as heat).

the tecnical specifications printed on an MAE Size 23 1.8 degree (200 Step) Stepper Motor from Italy. This four-phase motor will put out up to 1 Amp per phase at up to 84 Volts. Therefore at the low RPMs typical of a DIY wind turbine you could expect to generate a high enough voltage after rectification to keep a 12 volt battery bank topped up.

3D printable brushless motors

  • MakeSea
https://www.makesea.com/web/claimer/brushless-motor
  • Christoph Laimer
https://www.instructables.com/id/600-Watt-3d-printed-Halbach-Array-Brushless-DC-Ele/

Scavenged motors

  • Washing machine motor
https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Wire-a-Washing-Machine-Motor-As-Generator/
  • CPU Fan to generator
http://www.scraptopower.co.uk/alt-energy/upcycle-pc-fan
  • From fan to generator
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApKFeaJ6xYE
  • Brushless motor
https://www.generatorszone.com/brushless-generator/
  • old hoverboard
https://www.instructables.com/id/DIY-Wind-Generator/

Testing a brushless motor

Alternator

Car Alternator

An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current. For reasons of cost and simplicity, most alternators use a rotating magnetic field with a stationary armature.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeqy-OE5ZIM

Alternator vs Generator

Alternators and generators are two devices which generate electricity. An alternator can be called a type of generator. Although both these devices serve the same function, they are quite different in every other aspect.

An alternator is a charging system for cars that produces electricity. Generators are used in the production of large-scale electricity. Both alternators and generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The main difference between them is in regard to what spins and what is fixed.

In an alternator, electricity is produced when a magnetic field spins inside the stator (windings of wire). In a generator, on the other hand, the armature or windings of wire spin inside a fixed magnetic field to generate electricity.

Alternators are considered more efficient than generators. Alternators conserve energy by using only the energy that is needed, while generators use all the energy that is produced. Alternators have a higher output than generators.

When it comes to polarization, alternators and generators are very different. While generators have to be polarized after installation, there is no need for polarization in alternators. Alternator brushes last longer than those of generators. This is because the brushes in an alternator are used only for carrying current to power the rotor and the slip rings they ride are smooth. There is another difference between generators and alternators when it comes to charging. An alternator will not charge a dead battery and if you do try to charge it, there is a possibility that it will burn out. A generator, however, can be used for charging a dead battery.

There is also a difference in size as alternators can fit into a small space, while generators are larger.

Summary: 1.In an alternator, electricity is produced when a magnetic field spins inside the stator (windings of wire). On the other hand, the armature or the windings of wire in a generator spin inside a fixed magnetic field to generate electricity. 2.Alternators conserve energy by using only the energy that is needed. Generators use all the energy that is produced. 3.Alternators produce voltage when needed and generators produce voltage at all times. 4.Alternators generate a higher output than generators.


controller

buy a charge controller

You may find charge controllers at your local hardware store. Or maybe you can use that old solar charge controller you have.

DIY charge controller

The charge controller is required device to protect the battery and the user.

DIY solar charge controller

Can u use a solar charge controller for a wind turine? Yes you can very well use the charge controller of solar for the wind turbine too, provided the maximum ampere output expected from the turbine is within the range of specifications of the charge controller.

energy storage

The plan is to make a Off-Grid VAWT, therefor we will need a rechargeable battery.

The three stages or steps in lead/acid battery charging are bulk, absorption, and float. Qualification, or equalization are sometimes considered another stage. A 2 stage unit will have bulk and float stages.

battery cahrgeer basics:https://chargetek.com/images/pdfs/equal.pdf

Examples of low voltage batteries

  • Silver Flat Pack=Lithium Polymer (LiPo)=3.7V
  • AA, AAA, C, D (Rechargeable)=NiMH or NiCd=1.2V
  • Car Battery=Six-cell lead acid=12.6V

Examples of these type of batteries are:

  • Aluminium-ion battery
  • Carbon Battery
  • Flow battery
  • Lead–acid battery
  • Glass battery
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Magnesium-ion battery
  • Metal–air electrochemical cells
  • Molten salt battery
  • Nickel–cadmium battery
  • Nickel hydrogen battery
  • Nickel–iron battery
  • Nickel metal hydride battery
  • Nickel–zinc battery
  • Organic radical battery
  • Polymer-based battery
  • Polysulfide bromide battery
  • Potassium-ion battery
  • Rechargeable alkaline battery
  • Rechargeable fuel battery
  • Sand battery
  • Silicon air battery
  • Silver-zinc battery
  • Silver calcium battery
  • Silver-cadmium battery
  • Sodium-ion battery
  • Sodium–sulfur battery
  • Solid-state battery [7]
  • Super iron battery
  • UltraBattery
  • Zinc ion battery


12V DC Car Battery

energy outlet

MY GOAL: one 110V AC outlet